Hearty rye flour paired with three types of ginger—powdered, candied, and fresh—lends an earthy, lightly spicy flavor to these delicious holiday cookies.
Whisk together flours, crystallized ginger, baking powder, ground ginger, and salt in a medium bowl until combined; set aside. Using a heavy-duty stand mixer fitted with the paddle attachment (or a large bowl and electric hand mixer), beat granulated sugar and butter at medium speed until fluffy, about 2 minutes. Beat in eggs, one at a time, until incorporated; beat in molasses, fresh ginger, and vanilla. With mixer running on low speed, beat in flour mixture until smooth. Cover with plastic wrap, and refrigerate until well chilled and firm, at least 4 hours or up to overnight.
Preheat oven to 350°F. Shape dough into 1-inch balls, and coat with turbinado sugar. Arrange balls 3 inches apart on large parchment paper–lined baking sheets. Bake in batches in preheated oven until crisp around the edges and slightly soft in center, 13 to 15 minutes. Let cool completely on baking sheets, about 30 minutes. (If reusing baking sheets, make sure you let them cool completely before adding more cookie dough balls.)
Cookies can be stored in an airtight container at room temperature up to 3 days and in freezer up to 3 months.