How to Make It
In a large nonstick frying pan, heat 2 tablespoons of the oil over moderate heat. Add one third of the eggplant and 1/4 teaspoon of the salt and cook, stirring occasionally, until the eggplant is tender and brown, about 4 minutes. Remove the eggplant from the pan and put it in a large bowl. Cook the remaining eggplant in two batches, each using 2 tablespoons of the oil and 1/4 teaspoon of the salt. Add the garlic to the last batch of eggplant during the final minute of cooking.
Meanwhile, in a large pot of boiling, salted water, cook the penne until just done, about 13 minutes. Drain. Rinse with cold water and drain thoroughly. Transfer to the bowl with the eggplant.
Toss the pasta and eggplant with the remaining 2 tablespoons oil and 1/2 teaspoon salt, the parsley, pepper, and lemon juice.
Eggplant soaks up oil like a sponge; so it's best to cook this vegetable in a nonstick pan. That way, you can limit the amount of oil available for the eggplant to absorb without worrying about it sticking.