How to Make It
Preheat the broiler. Break open all of the chiles and discard the seeds, stems and membranes. Heat a cast-iron skillet over moderate heat. Add the chiles, skin side down, to the skillet and toast until blistered, about 4 minutes. Transfer the chiles to a heatproof bowl and cover with boiling water; set aside until softened.
Add the garlic to the skillet and cook over moderately low heat until softened, about 10 minutes per side; peel and finely chop. Add the tomato, cored side down, to the skillet and cook over moderately low heat, turning once, until charred, about 5 minutes per side; peel and coarsely chop.
Drain the chiles and transfer to a blender. Add the garlic, tomato, onion, oregano, cumin, thyme, cloves, vinegar and 1/4 teaspoon of pepper and puree until smooth. In a medium skillet, heat 1 tablespoon of the oil. Add the adobo puree and cook over moderately high heat, stirring often, until thickened, about 4 minutes; remove from the heat and let cool completely.
Place the tenderloin in a large, shallow dish and season with salt and pepper. Coat the tenderloin with the adobo paste, cover and refrigerate overnight. Bring to room temperature before roasting.
Preheat the oven to 400°. In a large, ovenproof skillet, heat the remaining 1 tablespoon of oil until shimmering. Wipe most of the marinade from the tenderloin, leaving a thin coat. Add the tenderloin to the skillet and brown on all sides over moderately high heat. Transfer the skillet to the oven and roast the tenderloin for about 25 minutes or until an instant-read thermometer inserted in the center registers 130° for medium-rare; transfer to a carving board and let rest for 10 minutes. Carve the tenderloin into 1-inch slices and serve with the >Bay-Steamed Broccoli.