Cutting-edge chefs are thinking like scientists—whether they're inventing brand-new flavors in state-of-the-art laboratories or cooking with centrifuges. Here, how their kitchen science innovations are bringing us better chocolate, calorie-free food and a tastier waffle.

In this article:

Kitchen Science: Cool Gadgets

Le Whaf turns food into breathable vapor.

© Phase one Photography

Vaporized Flavor

Chewing food is so 2010. Breathable, virtually calorie-free meals are the future, according to Harvard professor and inventor David Edwards. His new "Le Whaf" is a fishbowl-shaped device that turns food into a breathable vapor. When he launches Le Whaf this fall, will it finally become acceptable to inhale your dinner? About $100;

The Hettich centrifuge helps to separate liquids.

© Carlos Aponte

Immersion Circulator

Chefs drool over PolyScience's immersion circulator. Its latest invention is the $4,000 Sonicprep, which creates stocks without heat using ultrasonic waves, thus preserving more flavor.

Wylie Dufresne, chef at Manhattan's WD 50.
PolyScience's immersion circulator.

© Travis Huggett


Wylie Dufresne has a new toy. The chef at Manhattan's WD-50 recently purchased a Hettich centrifuge to separate liquids.

Some experiments had the intended outcomes, like clarifying red cabbage juice for boiling pasta. Others did not: The machine turned cream into butter.


Wylie Dufresne transforms ordinary ingredients into extraordinary garnishes.


Wylie Dufresne on creating unexpected presentations of familiar ingredients

Chef Sang Yoon

© Travis Huggett

Chilling Sink

Ice-water baths are ubiquitous in restaurant kitchens, but chef Sang Yoon was troubled by the amount of ice and water wasted. At his new Los Angeles restaurant, Lukshon, Yoon turned a sink into an insulated freezer, which recirculates ice-cold water and only needs to be filled once a day. "It's not glamorous," he says, "but on the back end, it's really helpful."

Food scientist Dave Arnold

© Antoinette Bruno,

More High-Tech Tools

Food scientist Dave Arnold on his futuristic kitchen.

1. Rotary Evaporator "Labs use this $12,000 piece of equipment to distill solvents; I use it to make amazing cocktails, like a clear chocolate liqueur that's not too sweet and nonspicy habanero vodka."

2. Liquid Nitrogen "A lot of chefs make ice cream with it, but I also turn fresh herbs into fine powder, separate citrus segments into jewel-like pieces, and freeze alcohol to make liquid-centered orbs."

3. Whipped Cream Siphons "You can infuse flavors into liquor almost instantly with a $45 iSi Cream Whipper. Briefly: Put liquor and almost any food into the whipper, charge it with the nitrous oxide cartridge, swirl it for a minute, vent, strain and drink. You can use seeds, herbs, spices, fruits, cocoa nibs."

4. Pressure Cooker "Home cooks use it to save time, but I like it for flavor modification. Pressure-cooked mustard seeds absorb lots of liquid, so they get soft, and the high heat destroys the pungent notes. I eat them by the spoonful. Same with garlic: It gets a deep flavor, but without giving you the garlic sweats."

5. Next Big Inventions "I'm in the process of starting a new company with chef David Chang to build equipment. First up: a sturdy, more affordable rotary evaporator. But I also want to tackle projects with wider applications, like a salad spinner that doesn't leak or break and a super-powerful blender."

Dave Arnold is the director of culinary technology at the French Culinary Institute in New York City.

Kitchen Science: Food & Flavors


Chilled Cucumber Soup

Chilled Cucumber Soup
Chef Eric Skokan of Boulder, Colorado's Black Cat grows hundreds of vegetables at his farm, analyzing each variety for its best use. He prefers the Zagross Persian cucumber for this tangy soup.

Yeasty Waffles
Credit: © Kate Mathis

Yeasty Waffles
Jeff Potter offers a waffle recipe made with yeast instead of baking powder in his book, Cooking for Geeks. A yeast enzyme called zymase helps make the waffles rich and sweet.

Omelet Soufflé


Slideshow: Step-by-Step Guide to Making a Fluffy Omelet Soufflé
Aki Kamozawa and H. Alexander Talbot, of the food science blog, are beloved by chefs like Richard Blais for culinary innovations. Here, they share their method for creating a fluffy omelet from their new book, Ideas in Food.

Flavor Tripping.

© Carlos Aponte

Flavor Tripping

Diners at chef Homaro Cantu's new Chicago restaurant iNG can "flavor trip" through courses at the chef's table. Cantu uses the so-called miracle berry— an African fruit that tricks taste buds by blocking bitter, sour and spicy flavors, leaving only sweetness—to mess with diners' expectations. "Depending on the level of sourness, the sweetness can go up and down," he says. "It's hugely entertaining!" Next up: a flavor-tripping cookbook.

Ben & Jerry's Late Night Snack ice cream.

Courtesy of NBC

Jimmy Fallon.

© Lloyd Bishop/NBC

Dessert Lab

Jimmy Fallon talks about the breakthrough behind his own ice cream flavor.

"I was really interested in using potato chips, but no one at Ben & Jerry's could figure out how to keep them crispy in ice cream. Then their food lab discovered that if you crush kettle chips and dip them in chocolate, they stay crispy. It's salty, it's sweet, it's so cool!"

Pastry chef Oriol Balaguer's Atomic Egg

Courtesy of Oriol Balaguer

Innovations in Chocolate

Cacao Tech "Chocolate technology is way behind wine, beer and coffee," says Brad Kintzer of San Francisco's Tcho Chocolate. Tcho is trying to catch up by installing satellite labs on cacao farms in Peru and Ecuador. Kintzer can test beans' fermentation levels and bitterness before producers ship them to the US, helping farmers tailor their operations to Tcho's specifications.

Futuristic Vision While working at Spain's El Bulli, pastry chef Oriol Balaguer combined eight chocolate textures into a single dessert. Now he's bringing avant-garde innovation to his namesake line, newly available at NYC's Borne Confections. He specializes in wild flavors (hazelnut praline with Pop Rocks) and futuristic shapes, like his Atomic Egg (photo), sprayed with cocoa butter.

Kitchen Science: Modernist Mixology

The Blueberry

The Aviary is Chicago chef Grant Achatz's new experimental cocktail lounge—there's no bar, no bartenders (chefs do the mixing) and each drink comes in a custom-designed glass. Here, a look at a creation called the Blueberry.

The Blueberry cocktail comes in a custom-designed glass.

© Christian Seel

Strong Spirits Similar to a Manhattan, the base of the drink is a mix of rye, Carpano Antica Formula sweet vermouth, and bitters (two kinds: orange and Angostura).

Fruity Mixers White verjus (tart grape juice) and Berry Meritage tea, a blend of raisins, rose hips, hibiscus and currants add complexity.

Bespoke Glassware The sides of the custom "porthole" vessel, created by Martin Kastner of Crucial Detail, come off so chefs can add large ingredients like citrus peel and mint sprigs.

Flavor Boost Chef Craig Schoettler, who created the Blueberry, adds mint, vanilla and fruit (citrus zest, pomegranate, blueberries and strawberries).

Slow Steep "The cocktail changes over time," says Schoettler, who serves it with a small glass, so the final pour is much sweeter than the first.

Out-There Cocktails

More new creations from experimental mixologists:

The Bellucci Shawn Soole of Clive's Classic Lounge in Victoria, Canada, tops his Negroni with an Aperol Spritz foam. He says it's like "drinking a cocktail through a cocktail."

Norfolk Dumpling Todd Thrasher of PX in Alexandria, Virginia, adds homemade duck sauce to tequila, pisco and bitters, then garnishes the drink with a shrimp cracker.

Kitchen Science: Style

Culinary Tools Pop Chart Lab poster.

Courtesy of Pop Chart Lab

Kitchen Table

Over 100 cooking tools—in categories such as "Those That Measure" and "Those That Divide"—appear on this Pop Chart Lab poster. $25;

Porcelain pieces by Belgian designer Pieter Stockmans.

© Kate Mathis

Molecular Porcelain

These porcelain pieces by Belgian designer Pieter Stockmans come in 26 geometric shapes, including octagons and hexagons. From $3.50;

Aluminum flower vases from Museum of Robots

Courtesy of Museum of Robots

Bud Beakers

Flower vases evoke chemistry sets in these polished-aluminum pieces from Museum of Robots. $60 for three;

Agnes chandelier

Courtesy of Roll & Hill

Lighting Science

The angular structure of the Agnes chandelier resembles a molecular diagram. From $6,000;