Fill a stockpot with 6 quarts of water, cover and bring to a boil.
Meanwhile, in a mini-processor, combine the olives, olive oil, lemon and orange zests, red pepper, parsley, thyme and 1/2 teaspoon salt. Pulse until very fine but not pureed. Transfer the paste to a warm serving bowl.
Add 3 1/2 tablespoons salt to the boiling water and add the pappardelle. Cover partially until the water just returns to a boil, then uncover, stir the pasta and cook until al dente. Drain well, reserving 1/4 cup of the pasta water.
Toss the pappardelle with the olive paste, adding some of the pasta water, 1 tablespoon at a time, if necessary. Serve immediately.
Try a bold red from southern Italy, such as a Primitivo di Manduria. For a white, choose a great Verdicchio.