Heat the olive oil in a large skillet over high heat. Season the shrimp with salt and pepper and add to the skillet. Sear on both sides until golden brown, about 1 minute per side. Transfer the shrimp to a plate.
Add the poblano pepper to the skillet and cook until soft. Add the garlic and cook for 1 minute more. Add the shrimp stock, bring to a boil and reduce by half. Return the shrimp to the skillet, stir in the butter, lime juice and cilantro and season with salt and pepper to taste. Spoon over Dirty Rice on a platter and sprinkle with the peanuts.