Dating back to the fifth century A.D., Japan has been the global epicenter for the world's highest quality chef's knives. Regardless of what's in front of you in the kitchen, there’s a Japanese chef's knife perfectly suited to chop it, slice it, or break it down. Specific Japanese chef's knives cover everything from deboning chicken to filleting fish to thinly slicing any vegetable you can think of.
Below is a quick guide to all of the styles of Japense chef's knives referenced above and the applications to which they refer.
Gyutou - The All-Purpose Knife
The Gyutou is the Japanese equivalent of an all-purpose chef’s knife and can be used for almost all kitchen tasks if need be. Literally translating to “beef sword,” the gyutuo is great for slicing all types of meat and holds an edge better than its heavier and thicker European counterparts.
Yoshihiro 8.25-Inch Gyuto Chef Knife 8.25, $130 at amazon.com
Santoku - The Smaller All-Purpose Knife
The Japanese word santoku refers to the knife’s "three virtues": its ability to cut fish, meat and produce. The santoku has a taller blade than the gyutou making any repetitive, up-and-down chopping motion easier and less susceptible to rocking.
Yoshihiro 7-Inch Santoku Multipurpose Chef Knife, $115 at amazon.com
Sujihiki - The Carving Knife
Perfect for filleting fish and slicing or carving meat or poultry, the sujihiki is an exceedingly precise Japanese chef's knife with a steeper bevel than similar European knives.
Yoshihiro 9.5-Inch Sujihiki Chef Knife, $140 at amazon.com
Deba - The Butcher Knife
Often times used interchangeably with a cleaver by American chefs, deba knives possess a thick spine and blade and a gently curved, single-sided edge. Deba knives are heavier than most other Japanese chef's knives and are especially great for filleting fish and butchering poultry.
Yoshihiro 6.5-Inch High Carbon Steel Deba Chef Knife, $200 at amazon.com
Yanagi - The Sushi Knife
The yanagi is the Japanese chef's knife used around the world for cutting precise slices of sushi and sashimi. Its especially long blade (ranging from 8-12 inches) is used for long slicing motions and is also perfect for breaking down large fish fillets.
Yoshihiro 10.5-Inch Stainless Yanagi Chef Knife, $195 at amazon.com
Takobiki - The Specialized Sushi Knife
The takobiki–or takohiki as it's sometimes spelled–is very similar to the yanagi with the exception of its blunt and square tip, which was originally instituted to prevent cutting customers. Takobiki knives are especially good for slicing eel and octopus (tako), the latter of which the knife is named after.
Yoshihiro 11.7-Inch Blue Steel Takobiki Chef Knife, $310 at amazon.com
Kiritsuke - The Executive Chef Knife
The kiritsuke is a cross between two different Japanese chef's knives, the gyutou and the yanagi. It’s longer than the gyutou, but with an angled tip unlike the yanagi. The kiritsuke is excellent for slicing fish and is traditionally used only by executive chefs, due to its status symbol and difficulty of use.
Shun 10-Inch Blue Steel Kiritsuke Chef Knife, $250 at amazon.com
Honesuki - The Poultry & Fish Boning Knife
One of the two most common styles of Japanese boning knives, the honesuki’s triangular shape and rigid blade make it especially great for breaking down poultry. The honesuki can also function as a paring knife when needed.
Shun 4.5-Inch Classic Honesuki Boning Knife, $74 at amazon.com
Hankotsu - The Meat Boning Knife
In contrast to the honesuki, the hankotsu is specially designed for deboning meat rather than fish. Its thick spine and stern blade make the hankotsu especially durable and versatile.
Yoshihiro 6-Inch Daisu Steel Hankotsu Boning Knife, $100 at amazon.com
Pankiri - The Bread Knife
Pankiri knives are solely used for slicing bread and baked goods. This serrated Japanese chef's knife is designed to cut through crusts without crushing the bread itself.
Sakai 11.8” Pankiri Bread Knife, $83 at amazon.com
Petty - The Paring Knife
The Japanese take on the French petit knife, the Petty knife is the quintessential paring and utility knife and perfect for all of the tasks that a gyutou or santoku are simply too large for. Specifically, petty knives are great for tasks involving small fruit, like peeling citrus, and both vegetables and herbs.
Yoshihiro 5-Inch Petty Chef Knife, $80 at amazon.com
Nakiri - The Home Cook's Vegetable Knife
The nakiri resembles a smaller version of a Chinese cleaver and is especially good for precise vegetable slicing and dicing, along with cutting into thicker-skinned produce. The nakiri possesses a double-edged blade and is considered the standard vegetable knife for home use in Japan.
Yoshihiro 6-Inch Nakiri Vegetable Chef Knife, $115 at amazon.com
Usuba - The Professional Cook's Vegetable Knife
The usuba is the most traditional Japanese vegetable knife and is used more commonly in professional kitchens than private homes. Usuba knives are singled-edged and are known for being especially sharp when cared for correctly.
Yoshihiro 6.5-Inch Blue Steel Usuba Vegetable Knife, $130 at amazon.com